DSM-III

For more information, see Intoxication

Diagnostic Criteria

A. Recent use of cocaine.

B. At least two of the following psychological symptoms within one hour of using cocaine:

  1. psychomotor agitation
  2. elation
  3. grandiosity
  4. loquacity
  5. hypervigilance

C. At least two of the following symptoms within one hour of using cocaine:

  1. tachycardia
  2. pupillary dilation
  3. elevated blood pressure
  4. perspiration or chills
  5. nausea and vomiting

D. Maladaptive behavioral effects, e.g., fighting, impaired judgment, interference with social or occupational functioning.

E. Not due to any other physical or mental disorder.

Differential Diagnosis

Manic episode

Manic episode may present with symptoms similar to those seen in Cocaine Intoxication.

Other substances

Amphetamine Intoxication and Phencyclidine (PCP) Intoxication may cause a similar clinical picture, and can be distinguished from Cocaine Intoxication only by the presence of cocaine metabolites in a urine specimen or cocaine in plasma.

DSM-IV

For more information, see Substance Intoxication

The essential feature of Cocaine Intoxication is the presence of clinically significant maladaptive behavioral or psychological changes that develop during, or shortly after, use of cocaine (Criteria A and B). Cocaine Intoxication usually begins with a "high" feeling and includes one or more of the following: euphoria with enhances vigor, gregariousness, hyperactivity, restlessness, hypervigilance, interpersonal sensitivity, talkativeness, anxiety, tension, alertness, grandiosity, stereotyped and repetitive behavior, anger, and impaired judgement, and in the case of chronic intoxication, affective blunting with fatigue or sadness and social withdrawal. These behavioral and psychological changes are accompanied by two or more of the following signs and symptoms that develop during or shortly after cocaine use: tachycardia or bradycardia; pupillary dilation; elevated or lowered blood pressure; perspiration or chills, nausea or vomiting; evidence of weight loss; psychomotor agitation or retardation; muscular weakness, respiratory depression, chest pain, or cardiac arrhythmias; and confusion, seizures, dyskinesias, dystonias, or coma (Criterion C). Intoxication, either acute or chronic, is often associated with impaired social or occupational functioning. Severe intoxication can lead to coma. To make a diagnosis of Cocaine Intoxication, the symptoms must not be due to a general medical condition and are not better accounted for by another mental disorder (criterion D).

The magnitude and direction of the behavioral and physiological changes depend on many variables, including the dose used and the individual characteristics of the person using the substance (e.g., tolerance, rate of absorption, chronicity of use, context in which it is taken). Stimulant effects such as euphoria, increased pulse and blood pressure, and psychomotor activity are most commonly seen. Depressant effects such as sadness, bradycardia, decreased blood pressure, and decreased psychomotor activity are less common and generally emerge only with chronic high-dose use.

Diagnostic Criteria

A. Recent use of cocaine.

B. Clinically significant maladaptive behavioral or psychological changes (e.g., euphoria or affective blunting; changes in sociability; hypervigilance; interpersonal sensitivity; anxiety, tension, or anger; steroeptyped behaviors; impaired judgement; or impaired social or occupational functioning) that developed during, or shortly after, use of cocaine.

C. Two (or more) of the following, developing during, or shortly after, cocaine use:

  1. tachycardia or bradycardia
  2. pupillary dilation
  3. elevated or lowered blood pressure
  4. perspiration or chills
  5. nausea or vomiting
  6. evidence of weight loss
  7. psychomotor agitation or retardation
  8. muscular weakness, respiratory depression, chest pain, or cardiac arrhythmias
  9. confusion, seizures, dyskinesias, dystonias, or coma

D. The symptoms are not due to a general medical condition and are not better accounted for by another mental disorder.

Specify if:

  • With Perceptual Disturbances

Specifier

The following specifier may be applied to a diagnosis of Cocaine Intoxication:

With Perceptual Disturbances

This specifier may be noted when hallucinations with intact reality testing or auditory, visual, or tactile illusions occur in the absence of a delirium. Intact reality testing means that the person knows that the hallucinations are induced by the substance and do not represent external reality. When hallucinations occur in the absence of intact reality testing, a diagnosis of Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Hallucinations, should be considered.

DSM-5

See Stimulant Intoxication

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