- 1 DSM-5
- 1.1 Diagnostic Criteria
- 1.2 Specifiers
- 1.3 Differential Diagnosis
A. Persistent difficulty discarding or parting with possessions, regardless of their actual value.
B. This difficulty is due to a perceived need to save the items and to distress associated with discarding them.
C. The difficulty discarding possessions results in the accumulation of possessions that congest and clutter active living areas and substantially compromises their intended use. If living areas are uncluttered, it is only because of the interventions of third parties (e.g., family members, cleaners, authorities).
D. The hoarding causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning (including maintaining a safe environment for self and others).
E. The hoarding is not attributable to another medical condition (e.g., brain injury, cerebrovascular disease, Prader-Willi syndrome).
F. The hoarding is not better explained by the symptoms of another mental disorder (e.g., obsessions in obsessive-compulsive disorder, decreased energy in major depressive disorder, delusions in schizophrenia or another psychotic disorder, cognitive deficits in major neurocognitive disorder, restricted interests in autism spectrum disorder).
- With excessive acquisition: If difficulty discarding possessions is accompanied by excessive acquisition of items that are not needed or for which there is no available space.
- With good or fair insight: The individual recognizes that hoarding-related beliefs and behaviors (pertaining to difficulty discarding items, clutter, or excessive acquisition) are problematic.
- With poor insight: The individual is mostly convinced that hoarding-related beliefs and behaviors (pertaining to difficulty discarding items, clutter, or excessive acquisition) are not problematic despite evidence to the contrary.
- With absent insight/delusional beliefs: The individual is completely convinced that hoarding-related beliefs and behaviors (pertaining to difficulty discarding items, clutter, or excessive acquisition) are not problematic despite evidence to the contrary.
With excessive acquisition
Approximately 80%-90% of individuals with hoarding disorder display excessive acquisition. The most frequent form of acquisition is excessive buying, followed by acquisition of free items (e.g., leaflets, items discarded by others). Stealing is less common. Some individuals may deny excessive acquisition when first assessed, yet it may appear later during the course of treatment. Individuals with hoarding disorder typically experience distress if they are unable to or are prevented from acquiring items.
Other medical conditions
Hoarding disorder is not diagnosed if the symptoms are judged to be a direct consequence of another medical condition (Criterion E), such as traumatic brain injury, surgical resection for treatment of a tumor or seizure control, cerebrovascular disease, infections of the central nervous system (e.g., herpes simplex encephalitis), or neurogenetic conditions such as Prader-Willi syndrome. Damage to the anterior ventromedial prefrontal and cingulate cortices has been particuarly associated with the excessive accumulation of objects. In these individuals, the hoarding behavior is not present prior to the onset of the brain damage and appears shortly after the brain damage occurs. Some of these individuals appear to have littler interest in the accumulated items and are able to discard them easily or do not care if others discard them, whereas others appear to be very reluctant to discard anything.
Hoarding disorder is not diagnosed if the accumulation of objects is judged to be a direct consequence of a neurodevelopmental disorder, such as autism spectrum disorder or intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder).
Hoarding disorder is not diagnosed if the accumulation of objects is judged to be a direct consequence of delusions or negative symptoms in schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders.
Hoarding disorder is not diagnosed if the accumulation of objects is judged to be a direct consequence of psychomotor retardation, fatigue, or loss of energy during a major depressive episode.
Hoarding disorder is not diagnosed if the symptoms are judged to be a direct consequence of typical obsessions or compulsions, such as fears of contamination, harm, or feelings of incompleteness in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Feelings of incompleteness (e.g., losing one's identity, or having to document and preserve all life experiences) are the most frequent OCD symptom associated with this form of hoarding. The accumulation of objects can also be the result of persistently avoiding onerous rituals (e.g., not discarding objects in order to avoid endless washing or checking rituals).
In OCD, the behavior is generally unwanted and highly distressing, and the individual experiences no pleasure or reward from it. Excessive acquisition is usually not present; if excessive acquisition is present, items are acquired because of a specific obsession (e.g., the need to buy items that have been accidentally touched in order to avoid contaminating other people), not because of a genuine desire to possess the items. Individuals who hoard in the context of OCD are also more likely to accumulate bizarre items, such as trash, feces, urine, nails, hair, used diapers, or rotten food. Accumulation of such items is very unusual in hoarding disorder.
When severe hoarding appears concurrently with other typical symptoms of OCD but is judged to be independent from these symptoms, both hoarding disorder and OCD may be diagnosed.
Hoarding disorder is not diagnosed if the accumulation of objects is judged to be a direct consequence of a degenerative disorder, such as neurocognitive disorder associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration or Alzheimer's disease. Typically, onset of the accumulating behavior is gradual and follows onset of the neurocognitive disorder.The accumulating behavior may be accompanied by self-neglect and severe domestic squalor, alongside other neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as disinhibition, gambling, rituals/stereotypies, tics, and self-injurious behaviors.