In DSM-IV, this disorder is called Dementia Due to Other General Medical Conditions
For more information, see Dementia and Mental Disorders Due to a General Medical Condition
- Dementia Due to HIV Disease
- Dementia Due to Head Trauma
- Dementia Due to Parkinson's Disease
- Dementia Due to Huntington's Disease
- Dementia Due to Pick's Disease
- Dementia Due to Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
In addition to the specific categories described above, a number of other general medical conditions can cause dementia. These conditions include structural lesions (primary or secondary brain tumors, subdural hematoma, slowly progressive or normal-pressure hydrocephalus), endocrine conditions (hypothyroidism, hypercalcemia, hypoglycemia), nutritional conditions (deficiencies of thiamine, niacin, and vitamin B12), other infectious conditions (neurosyphilis, cryptococcosis), derangements of renal and hepatic function, and other neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis. Unusual causes of central nervous system injury, such as electric shock or intracranial radiation, are general evident from the history. Rare disorders such as the childhood and adult storage diseases have a distinctive family history or clinical presentation. Associated physical examination and laboratory findings and other clinical features depend on the nature and severity of the general medical condition.
A. The development of multiple cognitive deficits manifested by both
- memory impairment (impaired ability to learn new information or to recall previously learned information)
- one (or more) of the following cognitive disturbances:
- a. aphasia (language disturbance)
- b. apraxia (impaired ability to carry out motor activities despite intact motor function)
- c. agnosia (failure to recognize or identify objects despite intact sensory function)
- d. disturbance in executive functioning (i.e., planning, organizing, sequencing, abstracting)
B. The cognitive deficits in Criteria A1 and A2 each cause significant impairment in social or occupational functioning and represent a significant decline from a previous level of functioning.
C. There is evidence from the history, physical examination, or laboratory findings that the disturbance is the direct physiological consequence of one of the general medical conditions listed below.
D. The deficits do not occur exclusively during the course of a delirium.
Note: Also record the general medical condition. For example, HIV infection affecting central nervous system, head injury, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Pick's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, normal-pressure hydrocephalus, hypothyroidism, brain tumor, vitamin B12 deficiency, intracranial radiation.
The diagnostic terms are selected depending on the specific etiological condition (e.g., Dementia Due to Parkinson's disease). The etiological condition (e.g., Parkinson's Disease) should also be recorded. An "other" category is included for etiological conditions not specifically listed and is recorded by noting both the dementia and the specific etiological condition (e.g., Dementia Due to Hypothyroidism). The etiological condition should also be noted (e.g., hypothyroidism).
In an individual with an established history of a dementia, a superimposed Delirium Due to a General Medical Condition should be noted by recording both the dementia and the delirium (e.g., Dementia Due to Parkinson's Disease and Delirium Due to Hepatic Encephalopathy). This is in contrast to Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type and Vascular Dementia, in which the With Delirium subtype is specified.
For more information, see Major and Mild Neurocognitive Disorders
A. The criteria are met for major or mild neurocognitive disorder.
B. There is evidence from the history, physical examination, or laboratory findings that the neurocognitive disorder is the pathophysiological consequence of another medical condition.
C. The cognitive deficits are not better explained by another mental disorder or another specific neurocognitive disorder (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, HIV infection).
The presence of an attributable medical condition does not entirely exclude the possibility of another major or mild NCD. If cognitive deficits persist following successful treatment of an associated medical condition, then another etiology may be responsible for the cognitive decline.