- 1 DSM-5
- 1.1 Diagnostic Criteria
- 1.2 Differential Diagnosis
- 1.2.1 Delirium
- 1.2.2 Mixed presentation of symptoms (e.g., mood and obsessive-compulsive and related disorder symptoms)
- 1.2.3 Substance/medication-induced obsessive-compulsive and related disorders
- 1.2.4 Obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (primary)
- 1.2.5 Illness anxiety disorder
- 1.2.6 Associated feature of another mental disorder
- 1.2.7 Other specified obsessive-compulsive and related disorder or unspecified obsessive-compulsive and related disorder
A. Obsessions, compulsions, preoccupations with appearance, hoarding, skin picking, hair pulling, other body-focused repetitive behaviors, or other other symptoms characteristic of obsessive-compulsive and related disorder predominate in the clinical picture.
B. There is evidence from the history, physical examination, or laboratory findings that the disturbance is the direct pathophysiological consequence of another medical condition.
C. The disturbance is not better explained by another mental disorder.
D. The disturbance does not occur exclusively during the course of a delirium.
E. The disturbance causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
- With obsessive-compulsive disorder-like symptoms: If obsessive-compulsive disorder-like symptoms predominate in the clinical presentation.
- With appearance preoccupations: If preoccupation with perceived appearance defects or flaws predominates in the clinical presentation.
- With hoarding symptoms: If hoarding predominates in the clinical presentation.
- With hair-pulling symptoms: If hair pulling predominates in the clinical presentation.
- With skin-picking symptoms: If skin picking predominates in the clinical presentation.
Note: Include the name of the other medical condition in the name of the mental disorder (e.g., obsessive-compulsive and related disorder due to cerebral infarction). The other medical condition should be listed separately immediately before the obsessive-compulsive and related disorder due to the medical condition (e.g., cerebral infarction; obsessive-compulsive and related disorder due to cerebral infarction).
A separate diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive and related disorder due to another medical condition is not given if the disturbance occurs exclusively during the course of a delirium. However, a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive and related disorder due to another medical condition may be given in addition to a diagnosis of major neurocognitive disorder (dementia) if the etiology of the obsessive-compulsive symptoms is judged to be a physiological consequence of the pathological process causing the dementia and if obsessive-compulsive symptoms are a prominent part of the clinical presentation.
If the presentation includes a mix of different types of symptoms, the specific mental disorder due to another medical condition depends on which symptoms predominate in the clinical picture.
If there is evidence of recent of prolonged substance use (including medication with psychoactive effects), withdrawal from a substance, or exposure to a toxin, a substance/medication-induced obsessive-compulsive and related disorder should be considered. When a substance/medication-induced obsessive-compulsive and related disorder is being diagnosed in relation to drugs of abuse, it may be useful to obtain a urine or blood drug screen or other appropriate laboratory evaluation. Symptoms that occur during or shortly after (i.e., within 4 weeks of) substance intoxication or withdrawal or after medication use may be especially indicative of a substance/medication-induced obsessive-compulsive and related disorder, depending on the type, duration, or amount of the substance used.
Obsessive-compulsive and related disorder due to another medical condition should be distinguished from a primary obsessive-compulsive and related disorder. In primary mental disorders, no specific and direct causative physiological mechanisms associated with a medical condition can be demonstrated. Late age at onset or atypical symptoms suggest the need for a thorough assessment to rule out the diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive and related disorder due to another medical condition.
Illness anxiety disorder is characterized by a preoccupation with having or acquiring a serious illness. In the case of illness anxiety disorder, individuals may or may not have diagnosed medical conditions.
Associated feature of another mental disorder
Obsessive-compulsive and related symptoms may be an associated feature of another mental disorder (e.g., schizophrenia, anorexia nervosa).
These diagnoses are given if it is unclear whether the obsessive-compulsive and related symptoms are primary, substance-induced, or due to another medical condition.