Other (or Unknown) Substance Use Disorders
Other (or Unknown) Substance-Induced Disorders
- Other (or Unknown) Substance Intoxication
- Other (or Unknown) Substance Withdrawal
- Other (or Unknown) Substance-Induced Delirium
- Other (or Unknown) Substance-Induced Persisting Dementia
- Other (or Unknown) Substance-Induced Persisting Amnestic Disorder
- Other (or Unknown) Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder
- Other (or Unknown) Substance-Induced Mood Disorder
- Other (or Unknown) Substance-Induced Anxiety Disorder
- Other (or Unknown) Substance-Induced Sexual Dysfunction
- Other (or Unknown) Substance-Induced Sleep Disorder
Other (or Unknown) Substance-Related Disorder Not Otherwise Specified
The Other (or Unknown) Substance-Related Disorders category is for classifying Substance-Related Disorders associated with substances not listed elsewhere. Examples of these substances, which are described in more detail below, include anabolic steroids, nitrite inhalants ("poppers"), nitrous oxide, over-the-counter and prescription medications not otherwise covered by the 11 categories (e.g., cortisol, antihistamines, benztropine), and other substances that have psychoactive effects. In addition, this category may be used when the specific substance is unknown (e.g., an intoxication after taking a bottle of unlabeled pills).
Anabolic steroids sometimes produce an initial sense of enhanced well-being (or even euphoria), which is replaced after repeated use by lack of energy, irritability, and other forms of dysphoria. Continued use of these substances may lead to more severe symptoms (e.g., depressive symptomatology) and general medical conditions (liver disease).
Nitrite inhalants ("poppers" - forms of amyl, butyl, and isobutyl nitrite) produce an intoxication that is characterized by a feeling of fullness in the head, mild euphoria, a change in the perception of time, relaxation of smooth muscles, and a possible increase in sexual feelings. In addition to possible compulsive use, these substances carry dangers of potential impairment of immune functioning, irritation of the respiratory system, a decrease in the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood, and a toxic reaction that can include vomiting, severe headache, hypotension, and dizziness.
Nitrous oxide ("laughing gas") causes rapid onset of an intoxication that is characterized by light-headedness and a floating sensation that clears in a matter of minutes after administration is stopped. There are reports of temporary but clinically relevant confusion and reversible paranoid states when nitrous oxide is used regularly.
Other substances that are capable of producing mild intoxications include catnip, which can produce states similar to those observed with marijuana and which in high doses is reported to result in LSD-type perceptions; betel nut, which is chewed in many cultures to produce mild euphoria and floating sensation; and kava (a substance derived from the South Pacific pepper plant), which produces sedation, incoordination, weight loss, mild forms of hepatitis, and lung abnormalities. In addition, individuals can develop dependence and impairment through repeated self-administration of over-the-counter and prescription drugs, including cortisol, antiparkinsonian agents that have anticholinergic properties, and antihistamines