DSM-5

Diagnostic Criteria

A. The development of a reversible substance-specific syndrome attributable to recent ingestion of (or exposure to) a substance that is not listed elsewhere or is unknown.

B. Clinically significant problematic behavioral or psychological changes that are attributable to the effect of the substance on the central nervous system (e.g., impaired motor coordination, psychomotor agitation or retardation, euphoria, anxiety, belligerence, mood lability, cognitive impairment, impaired judgement, social withdrawal) and develop during, or shortly after, use of the substance.

C. The signs or symptoms are not attributable to another medical condition and are not better explained by another mental disorder, including intoxication with another substance.

Differential Diagnosis

Use of other or unknown substance, without meeting criteria for other (or unknown) substance intoxication

The individual used an other or unknown substance(s), but the dose was insufficient to produce symptoms that meet the diagnostic criteria required for the diagnosis.

Substance intoxication or other substance/medication-induced disorders

Familiar substances may be sold in the black market as novel products, and individuals may experience intoxication from those substances. History, toxicology screens, or chemical testing of the substance itself may help to identify it.

Different types of other (or unknown) substance-related disorders

Episodes of other (or unknown) substance intoxication may occur during, but are distinct from, other (or unknown) substance use disorder, unspecified other (or unknown) substance-related disorder, and other (or unknown) substance-induced disorders.

Other toxic, metabolic, traumatic, neoplastic, vascular, or infectious disorders that impair brain function and cognition

Numerous neurological and other medical conditions may produce rapid onset of signs and symptoms mimicking those of intoxications, including the examples in Criterion B. Paradoxically, drug withdrawal also must be ruled out, because, for example, lethargy may indicate from one drug or intoxication with another drug.

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