For more information, see Substance Dependence
Some of the generic criteria for Substance Dependence do not apply to phencyclidine. Although "craving" has been reported by individuals with heavy use, neither tolerance nor withdrawal symptoms have been clearly demonstrated in humans (although both have been shown to occur in animal studies). Phencyclidine is usually not difficult to obtain, and individuals with Phencyclidine Dependence often smoke it at least 2-3 times per day, thus spending a significant proportion of their time using the substance and experiencing its effects. Phencyclidine use may continue despite the presence of psychological problems (e.g., disinhibition, anxiety, rage, aggression, panic, flashbacks) or medical problems (e.g., hyperthermia, hypertension, seizures) that the individual knows are caused by the substance. Individuals with Phencyclidine Dependence can manifest dangerous behavioral reactions due to lack of insight and judgement while intoxicated. Aggressive behavior involving fighting has been identified as an especially problematic adverse effect of phencyclidine. As with hallucinogens, adverse reactions to phencyclidine may be more common among individuals with preexisting mental disorders.
The following specifiers may be applied to a diagnosis of Phencyclidine Dependence:
- Early Full Remission
- Early Partial Remission
- Sustained Full Remission
- Sustained Partial Remission
- In a Controlled Environment